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Biliary Disease

Bile ducts are the tube-like structure carrying bile from the liver and gall bladder and drain it into the intestine. Bile helps in digestion of fats and helps in their absorption. It also helps in detoxification of the body. The biliary disease involves the bile ducts and gall bladder along with the disorders in other organs that manages the production and transportation of bile. The biliary disease includes various diseases such as Gallbladder Stone disease, Choledochal cyst, Biliary Cirrhosis, acute acalculus cholecystitis, biliary tract malignancies, Mirizzi syndrome, and Bile duct stone. The symptoms and treatment are different for different types of diseases.

What is The Causes Of Biliary Disease?

Following are some of the probable cause of the biliary disease:

Inflammation of bile ducts:Inflammation in the bile duct may cause biliary disease. The condition is known as cholangitis. The bacterial infection is the most common cause of cholangitis.

Complications after liver surgery: Complications after liver surgery may also lead to biliary disease. Biliary leakage is the most common complication of liver resection.

Injury or surgery of gall bladder: Abnormality in the gall bladder after injury or during surgery may lead to biliary disease. Further, hypomotility of gall bladder and bile stasis increases the risk of formation of gall stones.

Biliary stricture: Abnormal constriction of the bile duct leading to biliary disease.

Inflammation in the pancreas: Biliary diseases also include pancreatitis.

What Are The Symptoms Of Biliary Disease?

Symptoms depend upon the type of biliary disease. In some case, the symptoms are acute while in other cases, the disease gradually progresses over years before presenting symptoms. The common symptoms of biliary diseases are:

  • Yellowing of skin and eyes- a condition known as jaundice.
  • Loss of appetite
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Fatigue and fever
  • Pain in the upper right quadrant of the abdominal cavity
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Clay-colored stools

What Are The Risk Factors For Biliary Disease?

People with certain factors have an increased risk of developing biliary disease. Following are the risk factors for biliary disease:

  • Family history of biliary disease
  • Overweight or obesity
  • Suffering from chronic pancreatitis
  • History of suffering from gall stones
  • Abdominal injury
  • Rapid weight loss
  • Increasing age
  • High-fat diet
  • Certain prescription medications
 

How The Diagnosis Of Biliary Disease Is Done?

Diagnosis of the biliary disease is done through various techniques. The patient with symptoms of biliary disease undergoes a comprehensive physical evaluation and may be advised for the following diagnostic tests:

  • Liver function tests
  • Blood tests
  • Cholangiography: X-ray of bile duct
  • Ultrasound
  • ERCP(Endoscopic retrograde Cholangiopancreatography)
  • Biliary Radionuclide Scan (HIDA Scan)
  • MRCP(Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography)
  • Computed Tomography Scan (CT scan)
  • Liver biopsy

What Are The Treatment Of Biliary Disease?

Following are the treatment option available for biliary diseases:

Lifestyle changes: Healthy diet, a diet with low fat and weight management may help manage the symptoms of biliary diseases.

Antibiotics: Common cause of cholangitis is a bacterial infection. Antibiotics are used to curb the infection.

Hepatoportoenterostomy: When bile ducts are blocked, excess bile damages liver cells. Hepatoportoenterostomy is done to drain the bile from the liver. 

Cholecystectomy: In case of gall bladder stones, cholecystectomy is done. This procedure involves the removal of the gall bladder. 

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This technique is used for the diagnosis of stones in the gall bladder. It also helps to remove the gall stones.